Tamil words consist of a lexical root to which one or more affixes are attached. Hebbar and Mandyam dialects, spoken by groups of Tamil Vaishnavites who migrated to Karnataka in the 11th century, retain many features of the Vaishnava paribasai, a special form of Tamil developed in the 9th and 10th centuries that reflect Vaishnavite religious and spiritual values. Malayalam and Sri Lankan Tamil dialects still retain the original (alveolar) stop sound in gemination (ibid). These include a corpus of 2,381 poems collectively known as Sangam literature. cavvarici "sago" from Malay sāgu), Chinese (for example, campān "skiff" from Chinese san-pan) and Greek (for example, ora from Greek ὥρα). Tamil is also natively spoken by Sri Lankan Moors. One of 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India, Tamil was the first to be classified as a classical language of India and is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. One suggestion as to the origin of the word anaconda is the Tamil anaikkonda, "having killed an elephant". It is one of the official languages of the union territories of Puducherry and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Each may be long or short. Tamil is the 20th most spoken language in the world. While this distinction can still be seen in the written language, it has been largely lost in colloquial spoken Tamil, and even in literary usage the letters ந (dental) and ன (alveolar) may be seen as allophonic. The alveolar stop *ṯ developed into an alveolar trill /r/ in many of the Dravidian languages. The sounds /f/ and /ʂ/ are peripheral to the phonology of Tamil, being found only in loanwords and frequently replaced by /p/ and /s/ respectively. Pollock, Sheldon (1996). The huge number of Tamil speaking people cutting across countries, the birth and growth of the language, the letters, the rules, the sound variations and the origin of special characters, symbols for Tamil calendar, Tamil numbers, time, land and cultural … [66], Tamil is the primary language of the majority of the people residing in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, (in India) and in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. ", "Sanskrit to be declared classical language", Writing and Diglossic: A Case Study of Tamil Radio Plays, "Standardization or restandardization: The case for 'Standard' Spoken Tamil", "By govt. Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 13th century grammar Naṉṉūl which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications. [21][22] The two earliest manuscripts from India,[23][24] acknowledged and registered by the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, were written in Tamil. Tamil is a null-subject language. In addition to the standard characters, six characters taken from the Grantha script, which was used in the Tamil region to write Sanskrit, are sometimes used to represent sounds not native to Tamil, that is, words adopted from Sanskrit, Prakrit and other languages. It is possible to construct grammatically valid and meaningful sentences which lack one or more of the three. A strong sense of linguistic purism is found in Modern Tamil,[122] which opposes the use of foreign loanwords. Tamil literature is dominated by poetry, especially Sangam literature, which is composed of poems composed between 300 BCE and 300 CE. Tamil has five vowel qualities, namely /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/. [88], In addition, with the creation in October 2004 of a legal status for classical languages by the Government of India and following a political campaign supported by several Tamil associations,[89][90] Tamil became the first legally recognised Classical language of India. Notably, the Tamil retroflex series includes the retroflex approximant /ɻ/ (ழ) (example Tamil; often transcribed 'zh'), which is rare in the Indo-Aryan languages. It is often possible to identify a person's caste by their speech. In November 2019, the state government issued an order to add 9,000 new words to the vocabulary. It is thought to have been born before 500 BC, as Tamil-Brahmin inscriptions from 500 BC have been found on Adichanallur, an archaeological site in Tamil Nadu. Tamil was one of the prominent languages of trade in the region during the pre-colonial era. order: 9,000 words to enter Tamil vocabulary", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tamil_language&oldid=1004640382, Languages attested from the 1st millennium BC, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, ISO language articles citing sources other than Ethnologue, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Person and number are indicated by suffixing the, Tamil has two voices. [16][17] It has the oldest extant literature among Dravidian languages. The Tamil language is one of the world's longest-surviving classical languages, with a history dating back to 300 BCE. Tamil has postpositions rather than prepositions. It now enjoys the classical status of a classical language by an act of legislation in 2004. Modern grammarians argue that this classification is artificial,[115] and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case. Symbols for day, month, year, debit, credit, as above, rupee, and numeral are present as well. For the first time you have an easy to use REST API for a Tamil Dictionary. [78] Tamil is also spoken by migrants from Sri Lanka and India in Canada, the United States (especially New Jersey and New York City), Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and many other European and Middle Eastern countries. To give an example, the word pōkamuṭiyātavarkaḷukkāka (போகமுடியாதவர்களுக்காக) means "for the sake of those who cannot go" and consists of the following morphemes: Tamil nouns (and pronouns) are classified into two super-classes (tiṇai)—the "rational" (uyartiṇai), and the "irrational" (akṟiṇai)—which include a total of five classes (pāl, which literally means "gender"). Tamil was also used widely in inscriptions found in southern Andhra Pradesh districts of Chittoor and Nellore until the 12th century AD. [37] In November 2007, an excavation at Quseir-al-Qadim revealed Egyptian pottery dating back to first century BC with ancient Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. [29] It is also classified as being part of a Tamil language family that, alongside Tamil proper, includes the languages of about 35 ethno-linguistic groups[30] such as the Irula and Yerukula languages (see SIL Ethnologue). [118], Tamil does not have articles. It has also been suggested that the āytam was used to represent the voiced implosive (or closing part or the first half) of geminated voiced plosives inside a word. Tamil does not have a copula (a linking verb equivalent to the word is). Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Most grammatical texts place them with the long vowels. Although Tamil dialects do not differ significantly in their vocabulary, there are a few exceptions. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 100,000+ words collection with detailed description of the words, makes it one of the largest such collection in the world. [97] Tamil dialects include Central Tamil dialect, Kongu Tamil, Madras Bashai, Madurai Tamil, Nellai Tamil, Kumari tamil in India and Batticaloa Tamil dialect, Jaffna Tamil dialect, Negombo Tamil dialect in Sri Lanka. 43. The closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam; the two began diverging around the 9th century AD. Article 343 gave Hindi the status of official language of the Union. Tamil or dialects of it were used widely in the state of Kerala as the major language of administration, literature and common usage until the 12th century AD. The language is spoken among small minority groups in other states of India which include Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra and in certain regions of Sri Lanka such as Colombo and the hill country. The earliest records in Old Tamil are short inscriptions from between the 3rd and 2nd century BC in caves and on pottery. Most contemporary cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio, for example, is in koṭuntamiḻ, and many politicians use it to bring themselves closer to their audience. The earliest attested use of the name is found in Tholkappiyam, which is dated as early as late 2nd century BC. [58] Colloquial spoken Tamil, in contrast, shows a number of changes. [50], Old Tamil is the period of the Tamil language spanning the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD. Tamil does not distinguish phonologically between voiced and unvoiced consonants; phonetically, voice is assigned depending on a consonant's position in a word. [134] As a result of this, Tamil in formal documents, literature and public speeches has seen a marked decline in the use Sanskrit loan words in the past few decades,[135] under some estimates having fallen from 40–50% to about 20%. In other Indic scripts, it is generally preferred to use a ligature or a half form to write a syllable or a cluster containing a dead consonant, although writing it with a visible virama is also possible. Here are the mp3 form of these songs. [110][111], Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil, the Tolkāppiyam. Tamil is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, as well as two sovereign nations, Singapore and Sri Lanka. Humans and deities are classified as "rational", and all other nouns (animals, objects, abstract nouns) are classified as irrational. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India, and one of the most industrialised states; the manufacturing sector accounts for more than one-third of the state's GDP. In addition to its dialects, Tamil exhibits different forms: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language (sankattamiḻ), a modern literary and formal style (centamiḻ), and a modern colloquial form (koṭuntamiḻ). When quotations from the BSI - Tamil - O.V. [98] Several castes have their own sociolects which most members of that caste traditionally used regardless of where they come from. 300 BC – AD 300. In addition, the voicing of plosives is governed by strict rules in centamiḻ. [123] Nonetheless, a number of words used in classical and modern Tamil are loanwords from the languages of neighbouring groups, or with whom the Tamils had trading links, including Munda (for example, tavaḷai "frog" from Munda tabeg), Malay (e.g. Tamil is a very old classical language and has inscriptions from 500 B.C and plays a significant role as a language in the world today. Demonstratives and modifiers precede the noun within the noun phrase. 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