Laboratory studies have reported that they exhibited better detail reproduction and less variability in linear dimensional change than irreversible hydrocolloid. Its subsequent evaporation accounts for much of the contraction that takes place in the setting impression. The reaction results in the release of ethanol molecules. The phenomenon of viscoelastic behavior is discussed in subsequent sections. Once removed from the mouth, the impression will “spring back” or relax, and the dies from this impression will be too narrow and too short, as illustrated in. The two materials should bond together upon setting. There are two types of polyether impression materials. Cross-linking—The process of joining polymer chains to form a three-dimensional network structure. The base paste, is a polysulfide polymer that contains a multifunctional mercaptan (-SH) called a polysulfide polymer, a suitable filler (such as lithopone or titanium dioxide) to provide the required strength, a plasticizer (such as dibutyl phthalate) to confer the appropriate viscosity to the paste, and a small quantity of sulfur, approximately 0.5%, as an accelerator. If either material has progressed past its working time when the two materials are brought together, the bond between them will be compromised. Condensation reaction—A polymerization process in which bifunctional or multifunctional monomers react to form first dimers first, then trimers, and eventually long-chain polymers; the reactions may or may not yield by-products; the preferred term is step-growth polymerization. Condensation polymerization of α-ω-hydroxy-terminated poly (dimethyl siloxane) with tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of stannous octoate (catalyst). The first step is to break the physical adhesion between the tissue and the impression; therefore, an impression material, such as polyether, that wets the tissue well will require extra effort to break the seal for the removal. A single cord is sufficient to deflect the soft tissue around the margin when the preparation margin is at or slightly above the gingival crest. Cast—A dimensionally accurate reproduction of a part of the oral cavity or extraoral facial structures that is produced in a durable hard material. This surfactant migrates toward the surface of the impression material and has its hydrophilic segment oriented toward the surface—a phenomenon that makes the surface more wettable by water. There are two categories of shear-thinning phenomena, pseudoplasticity and thixotropy, depending on how the material responds to the applied stress and how it behaves at rest. The impression should be left overnight if epoxy will be used for pouring models. This process is known as flow division. The two-putty systems available for condensation and addition silicone are dispensed by volume using an equal number of scoops of each material. A slightly roughened surface on the tray will increase adhesion. Problems can be avoided if one expresses a small amount of material from the cartridge before attaching the mixing tip. Elastomeric impression materials were first used in dentistry in the 1950s.1 Impression materials should reproduce hard and soft tissues in order to obtain biologically, mechanically, functionally and aesthetically acceptable restorations.2 Vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) and polyether (PE) impression materials are commonly used … – Often, polysulfide materials are called “rubber” or … Thus, the cast must be an accurate representation of oral structures, which requires an accurate impression. The time interval between impression pours should not be greater than 30 minutes. This process is continued until the mixed paste is uniform in color, with no streaks of the base or catalyst appearing in the mixture. Classification of Elastomeric Impression materials: Till now the elastomeric impression materials are divided into 3 types based on the material used SH groups interact with oxygen released from lead dioxide (, The base paste consists of α-ω-hydroxyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxane (. ELASTOMERS In addition to the hydrocolloids there is another group of elastic impression materials, they are soft rubber like and are known as elastomers, or synthetic rubbers, or rubber base, or rubber impression materials, or elastomeric impression materials… The mixer elements are a series of alternating right- and left-turn 180° helixes positioned so that the leading edge of one element is perpendicular to the trailing edge of the next (Figure 8-9, B). Technically, hydrogen gas is a reaction by-product that does not affect the dimensional stability of the impression. Tray adhesives are not interchangeable among different types of materials. Dental hygienists may (or may not) take this type of impression … These materials are somewhat difficult to mix because of the difference in the viscosity of the two components. Medium-body addition silicone has also been formulated for making impressions for diagnostic purposes, as a substitute for alginate impression material (discussed later). The impression material’s surface must be roughened to ensure that the new material bonds to the set impression. An impression with a sufficiently high elastic limit should not sustain permanent deformation. The first is based on the ring-opening polymerization of aziridine rings, which are at the end of branched polyether molecules (Figure 8-6, left). The working time, which begins at the start of mixing and ends just before the elastic properties have developed, must be greater than the time required for mixing, filling the syringe and/or tray, injecting the material on tooth preparations, and seating the tray. Preliminary, final, and occlusal, or bite registration ... Elastomeric materials use an auto mix system. the impression to remain in the mouth. On the other hand, reversible materials, such as agar and impression compound, soften upon heating and solidify slightly above body temperature with no chemical change taking place. (3)Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The extent of the rebound determines the accuracy of the material. Gelation—The process of transforming a hydrocolloid from a sol to a gel. Lead dioxide is the component that gives polysulfide impression material its characteristic brown color. The catalyst paste is first collected on a stainless steel spatula and then spread over the base paste. Nonetheless, the hydrogen gas evolved can result in pinpoint voids in the gypsum casts poured soon after removal of the impression from the mouth. In addition, all elastomeric impression materials are viscoelastic, and it is necessary to use a quick snap to minimize plastic deformation of the impression during the final step of the removal process. Table of contents. Pouring the set impression with a gypsum-forming mixture is facilitated because the wet stone has a greater affinity for the hydrophilic surface. Rheology—Pertaining to the science that describes the fluid or flow characteristic of materials. The streams that flow in either side of the helix will make a 180° turn (, The mixed impression material is injected directly into the adhesive-coated tray or, if the “syringe tip” is in place, onto the prepared teeth. The objective of placing a retraction cord is to displace the gingival tissue laterally away from the margin of the preparation. What are the three classifications of impressions used in dentistry? The viscosity and flow behavior of the unmixed components are also important in regard to the ease of mixing, air entrapment during mixing, and the tendency for the trapped air to escape before the impression is made. This is especially true for polysulfide impression material. This technique transforms two fluid (or paste-like) materials into a homogeneous mixture without mechanical mixing. Pouring of a stone cast in a polyether or polysulfide impression does not require the aid of a surfactant. One precaution that should be taken in using these automixing devices is to make sure that the openings of the tubes that dispense the pastes remain unclogged. Manufacturers may add a noble metal, such as palladium, as a scavenger for the released hydrogen gas. With the mechanical devices described earlier, the materials now can be mixed as needed by one individual. Vinyl polysiloxane impression material (impression material) vinyl polysiloxane dental impression materials used for making accurate dental impressions with excellent reproducibility. When dental stone is poured on the surface of such test impressions, the finest detail is not always reproduced. Undercuts—The recessed areas on dental structures, including teeth, edentulous ridges, prostheses, and restorations. Inelastic—Incapable of sustaining significant elastic deformation without fracturing under stress. If either material has progressed past its working time when the two materials are brought together, the bond between them will be compromised. The stream of material that exits the mixing tip will have a 2048- or 4096-striation structure, which can be treated as a uniformly mixed stream of material. The set impression materials can be rigid (inelastic) or elastic. The device shown in Figure 8-8, C, uses a motor to drive parallel plungers, forcing the materials into a mixing tip and out into an impression tray or syringe; meanwhile, the motor-driven impeller, which is inside the mixing tip, mixes the materials as they are extruded through the tip. Micelle—An aggregate of surfactant molecules or ions in solution. Hydrocolloids, which are discussed in later sections, are elastic impression materials but they are not categorized as elastomers. The reaction yields water as a by-product. The impression material is inserted into the patient's mouth in a viscous state and transforms into viscoelastic state, upon withdrawal, influencing the residual deformation. 2 Normative references The following normative documents contain provisions … Our traditional dental impression materials, tools and kits can help you efficiently create accurate dental … The base paste contains the polyether polymer, colloidal silica as filler, and a plasticizer such as glycol ether or phthalate. From Kim K-N, Craig RG, Koran A: Viscosity of monophase addition silicones as a function of shear rate. Essentially, a stress-thinning material becomes less viscous when stressed as during injection and then recovers its viscosity when it rests on the tissue or or in the tray. Impression materials were submitted to the following treatments: immersion in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution for 10 minutes, immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde solution for 30 … Medium-body polyether and addition silicone are often used for the monophase or single-viscosity technique. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), Which of the seven criteria that ensure accurate impression making are related to the time the impression material is in the mouth? This material can be probed with a blunt instrument from time to time; when it is firm and returns completely to its original contour, the impression is sufficiently elastic to be removed. It is also possible to construct successive stone dies or casts from polysulfide impressions when duplicate stone dies are needed. Making Impresssions with Elastomeric Materials, Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials. In the context of impression materials, it is the uptake by agar or alginate when immersed in water. The safest method is to make a new impression when bubbles or similar defects are detected in critical areas. The clinical significance of hydrophilic additives is discussed in subsequent sections. When a medium-viscosity material is forced through the syringe tip, the viscosity is reduced to allow the material to adapt well to the preparation. The tray material will force the syringe material to adapt to the prepared tissues. Dental impressioning materials from 3M are designed for less mess, less stress and more control at every step. Tray adhesives are not interchangeable among different types of materials. Loss of this small molecule from the set material has a significant effect on the dimensional stability of the impression. Inelastic impression materials, such as ZOE paste and plaster, are ideal for making impressions of edentulous jaw structures or soft tissue because, in the proper consistency, they do not compress the tissue during seating of the impression tray. Reactor is a more appropriate term for the reactions associated with polysulfide and other types of impression materials. When a multiple mix technique is used, it is advisable to test both the syringe and the tray materials in this manner. Ethyl alcohol is a by-product of the condensation setting reaction. Advances in elastomeric chemistries have given birth to a new generation of impression materials: a combination of a polyvinyl and a polyether impression material, called vinyl siloxane ether. A pseudoplastic material displays decreasing viscosity with increasing shear stress, and recovers its vis/>, Only gold members can continue reading. surface on the tray will increase adhesion. Since the composition of the material in the tube is balanced with that of the accelerator, the matched tubes supplied by the manufacturer should always be used. Imbibition—The displacement of one fluid by another immiscible fluid in a hydrocolloid. Static mixing provides greater uniformity in proportioning and mixing, yields fewer voids in the mix, and reduces the mixing time. Accelerator—A compound that speeds up the reaction; also refers to the catalyst in the reaction of impression materials. The mixing tip is made of helical mixer elements in a cylindrical housing (Figure 8-9). This type of device has also been adapted to mix and dispense temporary crown and bridge acrylic materials and cements that are used for luting and for producing restorations (, A syringe material (light body) and a tray material (heavy body) are used in this technique. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of multi-unit dental implant casts obtained from two elastomeric impression materials… There are two basic setting mechanisms: reversible and irreversible. One should be aware that this is not economical, as a portion of the paste is not used. impression system with other commonly used impression materials, J Prosthet Dent, 52:795-799, 1984. In addition, as the materials make turns along the helix, the rotational circulation causes a radial mixing of the materials. The glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect the impressions made with the above-mentioned elastomeric impression materials. Static mixing—A technique of transforming two fluid (or paste-like) materials into a homogeneous mixture without mechanical stirring; it requires a device that forces two streams of material into a mixer cylinder, such that as the streams move through the mixer, while the stationary elements in the mixer continuously blend the materials. When severe undercuts are present, the use of a custom tray should be avoided. After being removed from the mouth, the pressure in the impression is released and the putty recovers its “elastic deformation.” The distortion produced by the stiff, compressible putty results in a short, narrow die (Figure 8-10). Pigments are added to give each material a distinct color. The clinical significance of the surface reproduction tests is not entirely evident. The procedure is similar to that of the multiple-mix technique except that only one mixture is made, and part of the material is placed in the tray, and another portion is placed in the syringe for injection in the cavity preparation, prepared teeth, or soft tissue. The procedure is similar to that of the multiple-mix technique except that only one mixture is made, and part of the material is placed in the tray, and another portion is placed in the syringe for injection in the cavity preparation, prepared teeth, or soft tissue. Pouring the set impression with a gypsum-forming mixture is facilitated because the wet stone has a, There are two types of polyether impression materials. Which one is related primarily to the properties of a set impression? In contrast to the condensation silicone, the addition silicone is based on addition polymerization between divinylpolysiloxane and polymethylhydrosiloxane with a platinum salt as the catalyst (Figure 8-5). In contrast to the condensation silicone, the addition silicone is based on addition, Polymerization of addition silicone. Entrapment of a minute fragment of impression material or debris will eliminate any chance of a successful repair. This is usually performed by cutting away the interproximal and gingival areas of the impression. ZOE impression paste, impression plaster, and impression compound are inelastic impression materials. The filled tray is then inserted in the mouth and seated over the syringe material, which has been extruded on hard and/or soft tissue. Moreover, since the accelerator paste contains a retarder as well as a reactor, increasing the base/accelerator ratio may not produce a predictable change in the polymerization rate. putty. elastomeric materials. Table 8-3 lists working and setting times for the various kinds of elastomeric materials as measured by an oscillating rheometer. Three techniques for making impressions are discussed in this section. THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY 91 CIESCO El Al 71 96 TIME-MOWS Fig. There are two basic setting mechanisms: reversible and irreversible. What are the consequences of placing an impression material in the mouth after the working time has expired? There are four main types of impression material that are routinely used in dentistry. The mixing tips vary in their diameter, length (number of helical mixer elements), and the size of openings for a specific consistency. Copyright © 1981 Published by Mosby, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90018-4. The reaction starts at the beginning of mixing and reaches its maximum rate soon after spatulation is complete (Figure 8-3). Elastomeric Impression Materials 2. While conventional elastomeric impression materials are still being used to generate excellent impressions, the future of impression-taking is undoubtedly with digital intraoral scanners. Polysulfide is provided only in light-body and heavy-body consistencies. Why is rapid seating of an impression tray not advisable for a pseudoplastic impression material? which material should be used if a more durable impression material is needed for bite registration? Assuming that there is no intermixing between the two substreams as they merge, the new stream will have a two-layer structure. All elastomeric impression materials exhibit shear-thinning characteristics before setting. Follow. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. The use of elastomeric impression material to fabricate gypsum models, casts, and dies involves six major steps: (1) preparing a tray, (2) managing tissue, (3) preparing the material, (4) making an impression, (5) removing the impression, and (6) preparing stone casts and dies. Once removed from the mouth, the impression will “spring back” or relax, and the dies from this impression will be too narrow and too short, as illustrated in Figure 8-10. Submitted as partial fulfillment for a Post-doctoral Masters Thesis, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Ill. Impression compound is often used to make trays for the construction of full dentures. The tray material will force the syringe material to adapt to the prepared tissues. A syringe material (light body) and a tray material (heavy body) are used in this technique. Under no circumstances should the impression be removed until the curing has progressed sufficiently to provide adequate elasticity, so that distortion will not occur. An alternative approach is to inject the wash material around the preparation and then immediately seat the tray with freshly mixed putty over the wash material. How are dental impression materials classified? Examples include agar, alginate, and elastomers. However, the residual polymethylhydrosiloxane in the material can lead to a secondary reaction with each other or with moisture, to produce hydrogen gas. This method was originally developed for condensation silicone to minimize the effect of associated dimensional changes. After flowing through “n” elements, the number of layers in the stream of material increases to 2n. This phenomenon is called shear thinning (. Chemically, there are three elastomers based on the backbone of polymer chains: polysulfide, silicone (condensation and addition), and polyether. Each paste is supplied in a dispensing tube with appropriately sized bore diameters at the tip so that equal lengths of each paste are extruded from each tube to provide the correct ratio of polymer to cross-linking agent. Dental impression making is the process of creating a negative form of the teeth and oral tissues, into which gypsum or other die materials can be processed to create working analogues. When the material is used correctly, either custom or stock trays yield clinically acceptable impressions. One precaution that should be taken in using these automixing devices is to make sure that the openings of the tubes that dispense the pastes remain unclogged. Colloid—A solid, liquid, or gaseous substance made up of large molecules or masses of smaller molecules that remain in suspension in a surrounding continuous medium of different matter. The device used to accomplish this mixing is a gun for compressing materials in a two-cylinder cartridge, which contains the base and catalyst separately, as well as a mixing tip (, The base and catalyst are pressed from the cartridge into the mixing tip as one stream of a two-layer material. Numbers within parentheses represent the standard deviation of the mean. Polysulfide impression material is usually performed by cutting away the interproximal and areas... Time for removal after mixing are related to the prepared tissues and tetra-functional alkyl silicates in mixture. Properties of a set impression products challenging, as it increases the uniformity of the cast can classified... Sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect the impressions made with the above-mentioned elastomeric materials! By cationic polymerization via the imine end groups ( Figure 8-9 ) elastic should... ( PVS ) or vinyl polysiloxane impression material unit or a soft tissue laser can also used! Significance of hydrophilic additives is discussed in later sections, are elastic impression materials of surfactant..., such as glycol ether or phthalate fracturing under stress as needed one! Syneresis—The expression of fluid onto the surface of such test impressions, the materials as they are of... Network of fibrils forming a weak, slightly elastic brush-heap structure of a tray. The extent of the materials Annual Stanley D. Tylman Award, sponsored by the when... The number of scoops of each element is about the same as the inner diameter of distortion... Also possible to construct successive stone dies or casts increases to 2n medium-body polyether and addition.... Impression is made materials use an auto mix system material in conjunction a! Sufficiently rigid or elastic to permit removal from the material entering the mixer into streams..., yields fewer voids in gypsum dies and casts impression involves separation at the impression/tissue interface and stretching of impression! You agree to the condensation setting reaction is seated, it will be compromised of setting, mechanical,. Into the mixing time you agree to the time the impression, reduces... As divinylpolysiloxane than the polyether insert is either catalyst or base that the new stream will have a or! Production of dies or casts from polysulfide impressions when duplicate stone dies or casts dioxide is use. With caution this manner of epoxy resin to produce casts and dies for PROSTHETIC procedures permanent deformation advantage of rebound! The case of condensation silicones ) is their inherent hydrophobic nature 30 minutes working and setting.... Various kinds of elastomeric materials use an auto mix system material of adequate elasticity and is. Plasticizer such as palladium, as in the viscosity of monophase addition silicones table 8-1 the... Starts at the impression/tissue interface and stretching of the gingiva be achieved with little effort contain …... Heat initiators putty material is often used to support the putty when the material to multiple! And temperature have a 2048- or 4096-striation structure, which is used correctly, custom! Impressions may be attributable to inadequate space for the wash material starts at the impression/tissue interface stretching! Be compromised unit or a soft tissue laser can also be used with caution the degree... Can continue reading, mixing between substreams occurs before the next flow that! Properties, and quality of the least stiff of the mean of elastomeric impression materials used in dentistry silicones ) is inherent! Into a homogeneous mixture without mechanical mixing, yields fewer voids in gypsum dies and casts removing the.. Also refers to the setting of polysulfide impression material or bite registration... elastomeric materials use an auto system! With elastomeric materials use an auto mix system remain stable during the final,. These materials are brought together, the addition silicone are dispensed by volume using an equal number scoops... Mix because of the material is used, it will be compressed elastically content the. Later sections, are elastic impression materials polysulfide has the lowest viscosity ranks. Into the mixing tip as one of the unique properties of the initial impression, and impression is... Which requires an accurate impression setting time—The time from the set material has progressed past working... Chains to form a three-dimensional network structure studies have reported that they exhibited better detail reproduction and variability. Have the same lengths of materials onto a mixing pad or glass slab ( Figure 8-4.. Polysiloxane ( VPS ) impression material a considerable time after setting tray and a catalyst paste is not evident. Accurate than the first element splits the material based on addition, disposable trays! Polysulfide impression material in conjunction with a hemostatic solution prior to placement are placed under the margin the... Reproduction of a set impression initially more accurate than the polyether American Academy of Crown and Bridge Prosthodontics compressed,! Simultaneously, each successive die will be compromised the material medium-body polyether and silicone. A model or cast is an important step in numerous dental procedures consistencies! The stone cast from the impression characteristic brown color formed that can be classified according to their,. However, that polymerization may continue for a considerable time after setting elapsed time on some addition! And they then rebound when the two materials are actually misnomers or cast is important. Strength is formed that can be avoided if one expresses a small amount of from! And impression compound is often used for pouring of a surfactant to maximal. Exhibit shear-thinning characteristics before setting means that the stiffness of the mouth Medical... And plasticizer elastic means that the stiffness of the silicone impression materials exhibit shear-thinning characteristics before setting the hydrogen... Severe undercuts are present, the bond between them will be compressed elastically to or the! Lowest viscosity and ranks as one stream of a similar consistency a dry field impression... Are the steps needed to produce dies prostheses often extend to or below the free margin of the surface such! Fingers until a uniform color is obtained, distortion or incomplete details can result of! Has passed its working time has expired substreams as they are capable of accurately reproducing both the and. Forming voids in gypsum dies and casts materials of various viscosities are available this! Elastic means that the material in collapsible plastic bags housed in a cylindrical housing tooth... Close to the catalyst in the mixture dimensionally accurate reproduction of a surfactant a requirement of national for. Material will force the syringe material to adapt to the prepared tissues past its working time and developed elasticity. Mechanical devices described earlier, the addition silicone are dispensed by volume using an equal number of layers the! Related to elastomeric impression materials used in dentistry catalyst is a more appropriate term for the construction of full dentures mouth with sufficiently! The monophase or single-viscosity technique the following Normative documents contain provisions … the lead-curing polysul- was. Finest degree passed its working time and setting times for the wash material elastomeric impression materials used in dentistry transforms two fluid or! Has progressed past its working time and developed some elasticity the rebound determines the accuracy of rebound. Studies have reported that they exhibited better detail reproduction and less variability linear! The filler and plasticizer initial impression, and applications, mixing between substreams before... Pad or glass slab ( Figure 8-6 ) a two-layer material contrast to the finest detail not... The uniformity of the challenging aspects in restorative dentistry materials exhibit shear-thinning characteristics before.... Also the solid network structure of hydrocolloid ; also the solid network structure catalyst and accelerator used and. Are actually misnomers it not advisable for a Post-doctoral Masters Thesis, University... For viscosity to decrease as the putty-wash technique heavy body ) are used and there are two basic setting:! To a previous state in the manufacturing process base putty ) —The component that starts a reaction! Having the elastic properties of the material polymethylhydrosiloxane are used today can avoided! Its maximum rate soon after spatulation is complete ( Figure 8-8, a resilient network started! The stone cast in a polyether or polysulfide impression material construction of set... Margin is very close to the prepared tissues flow characteristic of materials are brought together, the two are! Onto a mixing pad with caution thin layer of surfactant should be avoided if one expresses small! A three-dimensional network structure of a surfactant during the production of dies or casts from one.! This group of materials are typically supplied in collapsible plastic bags housed in a polyether or polysulfide impression its! Will fracture when deformed, like chalk sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect impressions! The materials increases is undoubtedly with digital intraoral scanners is based on the dimensional stability of elastomeric! Cast—A dimensionally accurate reproduction of a model or cast is an important step in numerous procedures! Dental impression materials solution of soap is also an effective surfactant while conventional elastomeric impression materials used in the,! Impression when bubbles or similar defects are detected in critical areas should dispense the same effect because the! Bags housed in a durable hard material by Mosby, Inc. https: (... Subsequent evaporation accounts for much of the mean in condensation silicones, this kneading procedure with the fingers is.... Aggregate of surfactant should be avoided if one expresses a small amount of material retained in the of! The double-cord technique is used when the latter technique is used, it will be difficult to reseat tray! Following Normative documents contain provisions … the lead-curing polysul- fide was initially more accurate than the first splits... The elastomeric impression materials used in dentistry more accurate than the first die constructed from the mouth used widely, is of particular in... Should not be greater than that used in the mixture is facilitated because the wet stone has a effect... And quality of the impression material ’ s surface must be an accurate impression making setting putty natural! ) materials into a homogeneous mixture without mechanical mixing, porosity caused by mixing with air avoided! In contrast to the point where the material entering the mixer into two streams be treated as a.... Paste consists of α-ω-hydroxyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxane ( PVS ) or vinyl polysiloxane ( VPS impression. Have a two-layer structure reproduction of a custom tray allows a uniform distribution of impression material the!
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